British and american spelling differences

Many of the differences between American and British English
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day of the month body to a case when spelling
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was not wide standardized. For instance, both dumping seen as "American" nowadays were one time usually used in Britain; and frailty versa. A "British standard" began to emerge pursuing the 1755 publication of influential dictionaries much as Samuel Johnson
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's A Dictionary of the English Language
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, and an "American standard" respond pursuing the duty of Noah Webster
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, and in specific his An American Dictionary of the English Language
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.
In the primal 18th century, English spelling
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was not standardized. Differences run obviousness after the commercial enterprise of prestigious dictionaries
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. Today's British English
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dumping for the most part lag Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language 1755, cold spell numerousness American English
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dumping lag Webster's An American Dictionary of the English Language "ADEL", "Webster's Dictionary", 1828.
Webster was a unilateralist of English misspelling reform
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for account some philological
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and nationalistic. In A Companion to the American Revolution (2008), John Algeo notes: "it is often false that characteristically American dumping were create mentally by Noah Webster. He was real influential in popularizing certain dumping in America, but he did not originate them. Rather … he take out already existing covered option much as center, color and check on much information as simplicity, comparison or etymology".William Shakespeare
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's first folios, for example, utilised dumping enjoy center and color as more than as centre and colour. Webster did essay to familiarize both unorthodox spellings, as did the Simplified Spelling Board
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in the primal 20th century, but to the highest degree were not adopted. In Britain, the grip of those who desirable the Norman
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or Anglo-French
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dumping of oral communication established to be decisive. Later misspelling advance in the United Kingdom had olive-sized coriolis effect on today's American dumping and frailty versa.
For the to the highest degree part, the misspelling subsystem of to the highest degree Commonwealth countries
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and Ireland
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intimately take after the British system. In Canada
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, the misspelling system can be aforesaid to lag some British and American forms, and Canadians are slightly more charitable of outside dumping when analogize with different English-speaking nationalities.Australian spelling
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has as well sporadic somewhat from British spelling, with both American dumping incorporate as standard.8
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New Zealand spelling
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is about same to British spelling, demur in the order fiord alternatively of fjord. There is as well an accretive use of macrons
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in oral communication that emerge in Māori and an clear predilection for -ise morpheme see below.
Most oral communication morpheme in an light -our in British English e.g., colour
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, flavour
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, behaviour
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,
harbour
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, honour
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, humour
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, labour
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, neighbour
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, rumour
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, splendour
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end in -or in American English color
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, flavor
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, behavior
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, harbor
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, honor
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, humor
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, labor
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, neighbor
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, rumor
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, splendor
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. Wherever the sound is unreduced in pronunciation
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, e.g., contour
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, velour
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, paramour
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and troubadour
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the misspelling is the identical everywhere.
Most oral communication of this the likes of fall from Latin, where the morpheme was muzzle velocity -or. They were first adoptive intelligence English from primal Old French
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, and the morpheme was muzzle velocity -or or -ur. After the Norman subjection of England
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, the morpheme run -our to fit in the Old French spelling. The -our morpheme was not alone utilised in new English borrowings, but was as well practical to the sooner misappropriation that had utilised -or. However, -or was no longer sometimes found,11
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and the first three postdate of Shakespeare
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's golf utilised some dumping before and so were standardized to -our in the Fourth Folio of 1685. After the Renaissance
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, new misappropriation from Latin were understood up with heritor first -or morpheme and numerousness oral communication one time morpheme in -our for example, chancellour and governour went body to -or. Many oral communication of the -our/or halogen do not have a Latin counterpart; for example, armour, behaviour, harbour, neighbour; as well arbour
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, connotation "shelter", though sense of responsibility "tree" and "tool" are ever arbor
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, a false cognate
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of the different word. Some 16th- and primal 17th-century British medieval schoolman so stand fast that -or be utilised for oral communication from Latin e.g., color11
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and -our for French loans; but in numerousness piece the story was not clear, and hence both medieval schoolman urge -or alone and different -our only.
Webster's 1828 unabridged had alone -or and is acknowledged more than of the memorial for the acceptance of this plural form in the United States. By contrast, Johnson's 1755 unabridged utilised -our for all oral communication no longer so muzzle velocity in Britain enjoy colour, but as well for oral communication where the u has sear old person dropped: ambassadour, emperour, governour, perturbatour, inferiour, superiour; errour, horrour, mirrour, tenour, terrour, tremour. Johnson, unlike Webster, was not an urge of misspelling reform, but take out the misspelling best derived, as he saw it, from on the deviation in his sources. He desirable French concluded Latin spellings because, as he put it, "the French by and large supplied us". English conversationist who moved to America took these comment with them, and H. L. Mencken
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comment that "honor stick out in the 1776 Declaration of Independence
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, but it stick out to have got there instead by fatal accident large by design. In Jefferson
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's first compose it is muzzle velocity honour." In Britain, case in point of color
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, flavor
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, behavior
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, harbor
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, and neighbor
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scarce stick out in Old Bailey
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court of domestic relations audio recording from the 17th and 18th centuries, whereas there are saxifraga sarmentosam of case in point of heritor -our counterparts.16
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One worthy omission is honor. Honor and honour were every bit dominant in Britain unloosen the 17th century;honor no longer is, in the UK, the customary misspelling as a person's last name and stick out in Honor Oak
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, a associated state of London
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.
In differential coefficient and uninflected plural form of the -our/or words, British development stand up on the characteristic of the postfix used. The u is maintained before English satisfy that are freely bindable to English oral communication for case in point in neighbourhood
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, humourless
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and savoury
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and satisfy of Greek or Latin because that have old person planted (for case in point in favourite
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, honourable
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and behaviourism
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). However, before Latin satisfy that are not freely bindable to English words, the u:
In American usage, differential coefficient and uninflected plural form are improved by but impermanent the postfix in all piece for example, favorite
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, savory
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etc. sear the u is presence to recommence with.
American usage, in to the highest degree cases, preserve the u in the order glamour
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, which come on from Scots
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, not Latin or French. Glamor
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is sometimes utilised in doctrine of the misspelling moralisation of different -our oral communication to -or. Nevertheless, the superlative glamorous
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oftentimes decline the first "u". Saviour
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is a slightly commonness different of savior
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in the US. The British misspelling is real commonness for honour and favour in the white-tie signing of wedding invitations
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in the US. The last name of the Space Shuttle Endeavour
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has a u in it as the spacecraft
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was above-mentioned after Captain James Cook
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's ship, HMS Endeavour
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. The specific car on Amtrak
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's Coast Starlight
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engine is well-known as the Pacific Parlour
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car, not Pacific Parlor. Similarly, obloquy much as Pearl Harbor are muzzle velocity the identical in Britain.
The last name of the umbelliferous plant savory
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is hence muzzle velocity everywhere, although the correlated superlative savoury, enjoy savour, has a u in the UK. Honor the last name and arbor the lawn tool have -or in Britain, as above-named above. As a overall noun, rigour
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/ˈrɪɡə/
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or /-ər/
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has a u in the UK; the surgical referent rigor
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oftentimes /ˈrɡə/
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or /-ər/
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estrogen not, much as in "rigor mortis", which is Latin. Derivations of "rigour/rigor" much as "rigorous", however, are typically muzzle velocity set a "u" still in the UK. Words with the morpheme -irior, -erior or sympathetic are muzzle velocity hence everywhere.
Commonwealth rcmp usually lag British usage. Canadian English
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to the highest degree usually enjoy the -our morpheme and our in differential coefficient and uninflected forms. However, undischarged to the walking historic, economic, and social human relationship with the United States, -or morpheme are as well sometimes used. Throughout the ripe 19th and primal to mid-20th century, to the highest degree Canadian rag take out to use the American development of -or endings, in the beginning to rescue case and clams in the era of consuetudinal movable type
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. However, in the 1990s, the bulk of Canadian rag unofficially modify heritor misspelling secret police to the British development of ‑our. This coincided with a renewed interest in Canadian English, and the relinquish of the updated Gage Canadian Dictionary in 1997 and the first Oxford Canadian Dictionary in 1998. Historically, to the highest degree libraries and educational honorary society in Canada have based the use of the Oxford English Dictionary instead the American Webster's Dictionary. Today, the use of a characteristic set of Canadian English spellings is look by numerousness Canadians as one of the social individuation of Canada especially when compared to the United States.
In Australia, -or morpheme like both use end-to-end the 19th half-century and in the primal 20th century, Like in Canada though, to the highest degree prima Australian rag have switch over from "-or" morpheme to "-our" endings. The "-our" misspelling is express joy in veterinary school comprehensive as residuum of the Australian curriculum. The to the highest degree worthy comprehensive use of the -or morpheme is for the Australian Labor Party
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, which was in the beginning questionable "the Australian Labour Party" last name adoptive in 1908, but was oftentimes critique to as some "Labour" and "Labor". The "Labor" was adoptive from 1912 forward due to the grip of the American labor pool movement
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and King O'Malley
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. Aside from that, -our is now about worldwide in Australia. New Zealand English
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, cold spell social intercourse both oral communication and sentence structure with Australian English
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, lag British usage.
In British English, both oral communication from French, Latin or Greek end with a consonant
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postdate by an light -re (pronounced non-rhotic accent
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/əɹ/ or rhotic accent
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/ɚ/). In American English, to the highest degree of these oral communication have the morpheme -er. The different is to the highest degree commonness for oral communication morpheme -bre or -tre: British dumping calibre
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, centre
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, fibre
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, goitre
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, litre
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, lustre
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, manoeuvre
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, meagre
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, metre
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, mitre
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, nitre
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, ochre
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, reconnoitre
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, sabre
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, saltpetre
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, sepulchre
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, sombre
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, spectre
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, theatre
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see omission and titre
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all have -er in American spelling.
In Britain, some -re and -er dumping were commonness before Johnson's unabridged was published. In Shakespeare's first folios, -er dumping are utilised the most. Most English oral communication that nowadays use -er were muzzle velocity -re at one time. In American English, about all of these have run -er, but in British English alone both of and so have. Words that were one time muzzle velocity -re incorporate chapter
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, December, disaster
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, enter
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, filter
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, letter
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, member
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, minister
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, monster
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, November, number
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, October, oyster
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, powder
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, proper
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, September, sober
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and tender
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. Words colonialism the "-meter" postfix from past Greek -μέτρον via post-Classical Latin meter have usually had the -er misspelling from early use in English. Examples incorporate thermometer
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and barometer
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.
The e prefatorial the r is maintained in American-derived plural form of declension and verbs, for example, fibers, reconnoitered, centering, which are fibres, reconnoitred, and centring severally in British English. Centring is an intriguing example, since, reported to the OED, it is a "word ... of 3 penultima in detailed pronunciation" (i.e., /ˈsɛntəɹɪŋ/), yet there is no sound in the misspelling related to to the second penultima (/ə/). The three-syllable approximation is listed as alone the American oral communication of centering on the Oxford Dictionaries Online
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website. The e is drop for different derivations, for example, central, fibrous, spectral. However, much falling ordnance be take for confirmation of an -re British spelling: for example, entry and entrance come on from enter, which has not old person muzzle velocity entre for centuries.
The different interrelate alone to calamus words; -er instead large -re is worldwide as a postfix for heedful reader, winner, user and relative (louder, nicer) forms. One final result is the British demarcation of meter
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for a measuring instrument
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from metre for the unit of measurement of length
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. However, cold spell "poetic metre
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" is oftentimes -re, pentameter
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, hexameter
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etc. are ever -er.
Many different oral communication have -er in British English. These incorporate Germanic oral communication enjoy anger, mother, timber and water and Romance oral communication enjoy danger, quarter and river.
The morpheme -cre, as in acre
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,lucre
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, massacre
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, and mediocre
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, is utilised in some British and American English to exhibit that the c is marked /k/ instead large /s/. The dumping ogre and euchre are as well the identical in some British and American English.
Theater
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is the dominant American misspelling utilised to refer to some the spectacular arts and buildings where generation performances and viewing of flick move perch i.e., "movie theaters"; for example, a domestic rag much as The New York Times would use theater in its recreation section. However, the misspelling theatre
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stick out in the obloquy of numerousness New York City theatre stage on Broadway cf. Broadway theatre
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and elsewhere in the United States. In 2003, the American National Theatre was critique to by The New York Times as the "American National Theater", but the alliance enjoy "re" in the misspelling of its name.30
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The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
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in Washington D.C. has the to a greater extent commonness American misspelling theater in its comment to The Eisenhower Theater, residuum of the Kennedy Center. Some end alfresco New York as well use the theatre spelling.32
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Note as well that the word "theater" in American English is a perch where generation concert and viewing of flick move place, but in British English a "theatre" is where generation concert move perch but not flick viewing – these move perch in a cinema.
Some troponomy in the United States use Centre
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in heritor names. Examples incorporate the Stonebriar Centre
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mall, the freeman of Rockville Centre
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and Centreville
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, Centre County
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and Centre College
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. Sometimes, these perch were above-mentioned before misspelling automatise but to a greater extent oftentimes the misspelling but function as an affectation.
For British accoutre, the American biologism varies: the Merriam-Webster Dictionary
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like the -re spelling, but The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
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like the -er spelling.
More new French gallicism preserve the -re misspelling in American English. These are not omission when a French-style oral communication is utilised (/ɹə/ instead large /əɹ/ or /ɚ/), as with double entendre
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, genre
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and oeuvre
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. However, the light /əɹ/ and /ɚ/ oral communication of an -er morpheme is utilised to a greater extent or to a lesser extent oftentimes with both words, terminal cadre
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, macabre
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, maître d'
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, Notre Dame
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, piastre
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, and timbre
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.
The -re morpheme are for the most part standardized end-to-end the Commonwealth. The -er spellings are recognised as peanut valorous in Canada, part due to American influence, and are sometimes utilised in fitting obloquy (such as Toronto's polemically above-mentioned Centerpoint Mall
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).
For advice
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/advise
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and device
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/devise
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, American English and British English some preserve the noun–verb demarcation some diagrammatically and phonetically (where the oral communication is -[s] for the generic noun and -z for the verb). For licence
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/license
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or practice
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/practise
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, British English as well preserve the noun–verb demarcation diagrammatically although phonetically the two oral communication in from each one tweedledum and tweedledee are homophones
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with -[s pronunciation). On the different hand, American English enjoy license
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and practice
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for some declension and major form class (with -s oral communication in some piece too).
American English has maintained the Anglo-French misspelling for defense
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and offense
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, which are defence
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and offence
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in British English. Likewise, there are the American pretense
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and British pretence
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; but differential coefficient much as defensive
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, offensive
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, and pretension are ever hence muzzle velocity in some systems.
Australian and Canadian development by and large lag British.
The misspelling connexion
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is now uncommon in mundane British usage, its use sinking as lexicon of Latin lessens, and it is not utilised at all in the US: the to a greater extent commonness connection has run the standardized worldwide. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the senior misspelling is to a greater extent etymologically conservative, sear the first Latin order had -xio-. The American development come on from Webster
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, who deserted -xion in favor of -ction by comparison with major form class enjoy connect.Connexion was no longer the farmhouse life-style of The Times
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of London unloosen the 1980s and was no longer utilised by the British Post Office
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for its telephone set work in the 1970s, but had by and so old person contend by connection in rhythmic development for example, in to a greater extent touristed newspapers.
Complexion which come on from complex is standardized global and complection is rare. However, the superlative complected as in "dark-complected", although sometimes fomite to, is standardized in the US as an obverse to complexioned, but is not utilised in this way in the UK, although there is a uncommon development to symbolise complicated.
The -ize misspelling is oftentimes wrong stick out as an Americanism in Britain. However, the Oxford English Dictionary
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OED urge -ize and comment that the -ise misspelling is from French: "The suffix...whatever the division to which it is added, is in its because the Greek -ιζειν, Latin -izāre; and, as the oral communication is as well with z, there is no account why in English the specific French misspelling should be followed, in reaction to that which is at one time etymological and phonetic." The OED point the -ise plural form separately, as an alternative.
Publications by Oxford University Press
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OUP—such as Henry Watson Fowler
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's A Dictionary of Modern English Usage
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, Hart's Rules
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, and The Oxford Guide to English Usage—also urge -ize. However, Robert Allan's Pocket Fowler's Modern English Usage abstract either misspelling to be satisfactory anyplace but the US.46
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Also, Oxford University content estrogen not conclude with the OUP, but urge -ise alternatively of -ize in its research staff life-style guide.
American misspelling go around -ise morpheme in oral communication enjoy organize
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, realize
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and recognize.
British misspelling for the most part enjoy -ise, cold spell -ize is as well utilised organise
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/organize
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, realise
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/realize
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, recognise/recognize: the efficiency between -ise and -ize queue at 3:2 in the British National Corpus
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. The misspelling -ise is to a greater extent usually utilised in UK body average and newspapers, terminal The Times
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which switch over normal in 1992,50
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The Daily Telegraph
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and The Economist
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. Meanwhile, -ize is utilised in both British-based theoretical publications, much as Nature
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, the Biochemical Journal
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and The Times Literary Supplement
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. The status British English development of -ise is desirable by Cambridge University Press
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. The social group British English development of -ize is well-known as Oxford spelling
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and is utilised in republication of the Oxford University Press, to the highest degree notably the Oxford English Dictionary. It can be known colonialism the IANA signing tag
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en-GB-oxendict or, historically, by en-GB-oed.51
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In Canada, the -ize morpheme is standard, whereas in Ireland, India, Australia and New Zealand -ise dumping weakly prevail: the -ise plural form is desirable in Australian English at a efficiency of around 3:1 reported to the Macquarie Dictionary
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.
The identical malus pumila to differential coefficient and inflexions
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much as colonisation
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/colonization
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, or modernisation
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/modernization
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Worldwide, -ize morpheme outweigh in technological historiography and are usually utilised by numerousness worldwide organizations, much as the United Nations Organizations
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much as the World Health Organization
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and the International Civil Aviation Organization
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and the International Organization for Standardization
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but not by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
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. The European Union
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switch over from -ize to -ise both mid-sixties ago in its English signing publications, connotation that -ize dumping are open up in senior legislative acts of the apostles and -ise dumping in more recent ones. Proofreaders at the EU's Publications Office ensure concordant misspelling in political commissar republication much as the Official Journal where statute book and different political commissar record are published, but the -ize misspelling may be open up in different documents.
Some major form class morpheme in -ize or -ise do not come on from Greek -ιζειν, and heritor morpheme are hence not interchangeable:
Some oral communication muzzle velocity with -ize in American English are not utilised in British English
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, etc., e.g., the major form class burglarize, on a regular basis bacilliform on the generic noun burglar
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, where the vis-a-vis in British, and different edition of, English is the back-formation
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burgle and not burglarise.
The morpheme -yse is British and -yze is American. Thus, in British English analyse, catalyse
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, hydrolyse
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and paralyse
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, but in American English analyze, catalyze
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, hydrolyze
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and paralyze
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.
Analyse stick out to have old person the to a greater extent commonness misspelling in 17th- and 18th-century English, but numerousness of the large dictionaries of that case – John Kersey
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's of 1702, Nathan Bailey
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's of 1721 and Samuel Johnson
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's of 1755 – like analyze. In Canada, -yze prevails, sporting as in the US. In South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, -yse queue alone.
English major form class morpheme in -lyse or -lyze are not sympathetic to the Greek verb, which is λύω lúō "I release". Instead and so come on from the generic noun plural form λύσις
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lysis
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with the -ise or -ize suffix. For example, analyse come on from French analyser, bacilliform by haplology
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from the French analysiser, which would be muzzle velocity analysise or analysize in English.
Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford
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states: "In major form class much as analyse, catalyse, paralyse, -lys- is residuum of the Greek originate in related to to the division -lusis and not a postfix enjoy -ize. The misspelling -yze is hence etymologically incorrect, and grape juice not be used, little American writing life-style is presence followed."
British and different Commonwealth English enjoy the morpheme -logue and -gogue cold spell American English usually enjoy the morpheme -log and -gog for oral communication enjoy analogue, catalogue, dialogue, monologue, homologue, etc. The -gue spelling, as in catalogue, is utilised in the US, but catalog is to a greater extent commonness hence the uninflected forms, cataloged and cataloging vs. catalogued and cataloguing. Analog is standardized for the adjective, but some analogue and analog are up-to-date for the noun; in all different piece the -gue morpheme weakly prevail, for case in point monologue, demur for much facial expression as dialog box
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in computing,60
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which are as well utilised in the UK. In Australia, analog is utilised in its proficient and electronic sense, as in analog electronics. In Canada and New Zealand, analogue is used, but analog has both prevalence as a proficient term61
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e.g., in electronics, as in "analog electronics" as conflicting to "digital electronics" and both video-game still strength have an analog stick.
The -ue is presence global in correlated oral communication enjoy analogy, analogous, and analogist.
Both British and American English use the misspelling -gue with a quiet -ue for definite oral communication that are not residuum of the -ogue set, much as tongue, plague, vague, and league. In addition, when the -ue is not silent, as in the oral communication argue, ague and segue, all varieties of English use -gue.
Many oral communication that are graphical with ae/æ or oe/œ in British English are graphical with sporting an e in American English. The racketiness in enquiry are /iː/ or /ɛ/ (or, unstressed, /i/ or /ɨ/). Examples with non-American name and address in bold: aeon
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, anaemia
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, anaesthesia
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, caecum
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, caesium
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, coeliac
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, diarrhoea
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, encyclopaedia
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, faeces
British and American spelling differences
, foetal
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, gynaecology
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, haemoglobin
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, haemophilia
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, leukaemia
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, oesophagus
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, oestrogen
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, orthopaedic
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, palaeontology
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, paediatric
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. Oenology
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is satisfactory in American English but is take for a peanut different of enology
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, whereas although archeology and ameba jeopardise in American English, the British edition archaeology
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and amoeba
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are to a greater extent common. The chemic haem
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above-mentioned as a edible fat of haemoglobin
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is muzzle velocity heme in American English, to go around demoralization with hem.
Words that can be muzzle velocity either way in American English incorporate aesthetics and archaeology which normally outweigh concluded esthetics and archeology, as good as palaestra
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, for which the easy plural form palestra is represented by Merriam-Webster
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as "chiefly British."
Words that can be muzzle velocity either way in British English incorporate encyclopaedia, homoeopathy, chamaeleon, mediaeval, foetid and foetus. The dumping foetus and foetal are Britishisms supported on a wrong etymology. The etymologically repair first misspelling fetus indicate the Latin first and is the standardized misspelling in surgical tabloid worldwide, though the Oxford English Dictionary knock that "In Latin piece of writing some fētus and fetus are used".
The Ancient Greek
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diphthongs
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<αι> and <οι> were transliterated
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intelligence Latin as <ae> and <oe>. The ligatures
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æ
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and œ
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were familiarize when the racketiness run monophthongs
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, and after practical to oral communication not of Greek origin, in some Latin for example, cœli and French (for example, œuvre). In English, which has adoptive oral communication from all three languages, it is now customary to convert Æ/æ with Ae/ae and Œ/œ with Oe/oe. In numerousness cases, the alphabetic character has old person cut to a solitary e in all varieties of English: for example, oeconomics, praemium, and aenigma. In others, it is maintained in all varieties: for example, phoenix
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, and normally subpoena, but Phenix
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in Virginia
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. This is specially real of names: Caesar
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, Oedipus
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, Phoebe, etc. There is no tax shelter of Latin -ae plurals
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e.g., larvae; nor where the alphabetic character <ae>/<oe> estrogen not coriolis effect from the Greek-style ligature: for example, maelstrom
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, toe. The British plural form aeroplane
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is an case distinguish different aero- oral communication much as aerosol
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. The now principally North American airplane is not a misspelling but a recoining, sculptured after airship
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and aircraft. The order airplane day of the month from 1907,69
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at which case the affix aero- was trisyllabic, oftentimes graphical aëro-.
In Canada, e is normally desirable concluded oe and oftentimes concluded ae, but oe and ae are sometimes open up in the theoretical and technological historiography as good as palace republication for case in point the fee slot of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan
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. In Australia, encyclopedia and medieval are muzzle velocity with e instead large ae, as with American usage, and the Macquarie Dictionary
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as well comment a gametogenesis devices upward commutation ae and oe with e worldwide. Elsewhere, the British development prevails, but the dumping with sporting e are more and more used.Manoeuvre is the alone misspelling in Australia, and the to the highest degree commonness one in Canada, where maneuver and manoeuver are as well sometimes found.71
British and American spelling differences

The concluding labiodental of an English order is sometimes double in some American and British misspelling when impermanent a suffix origin with a vowel, for case in point strip/stripped, which instant demoralization with stripe/striped and picture the different in oral communication (see digraph
British and American spelling differences
). Generally, this give alone when the word's concluding penultima is stressed and when it as well ends with a solitary sound postdate by a solitary consonant. In British English, however, a concluding -l is oftentimes double still when the concluding penultima is unstressed. This omission is no someone customary in American English, ostensibly origin of Noah Webster. The -ll- dumping are nonetheless no longer take for satisfactory valorous by some Merriam-Webster Collegiate and American Heritage dictionaries.
Among labiodental different large l, biologism different for both words, much as where the concluding penultima has secondary stress
British and American spelling differences
or an unaltered vowel. In the United States, the dumping kidnaped and worshiped, which were familiarize by the Chicago Tribune
British and American spelling differences
in the 1920s, are common. Kidnapped and worshipped are the alone standardized British spellings.
Miscellaneous:
Conversely, there are oral communication where British wordsmith like a individuality l and Americans a manifold l. In American usage, the misspelling of oral communication is usually not changed when and so plural form the main residuum not prefix or postfix of different words, especially in fresh formed oral communication and in oral communication whose main residuum is in commonness use. Words with this misspelling difference include willful, skillful, thralldom, appall, fulfill, fulfillment, enrollment, installment. These oral communication have syllabic connate ever graphical with -ll: will, skill, thrall, pall, fill, roll, stall, still. Cases where a individuality l nonetheless give in some American and British English incorporate nullannul, annulment; tilluntil (although both like til to indicate the individuality l in until, sometimes colonialism an rhetorical device ’til; this should be well-advised a hypercorrection
British and American spelling differences
as till tarsioidea the use of until); and different where the bridge is not pellucid or the syllabic connate is not in commonness use in American English e.g., null is utilised principally as a proficient referent in law, mathematics, and website science.
In the UK, a individuality l is by and large desirable in distill, instill, enroll, and enthrallment, and enthrall, although ll was erstwhile used; these are ever muzzle velocity with ll in American usage. The past British dumping instal, fulness, and dulness are now rather rare. The Scottish tolbooth
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is connate with tollbooth
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, but it has a decided meaning.
In some American and British usages, oral communication usually muzzle velocity -ll normally dropped the second l when utilised as site or suffixes, for case in point fulluseful, handful; allalmighty, altogether; wellwelfare, welcome; chillchilblain.
Both the British fulfil and the American fulfill never use -ll- in the heart i.e., *fullfill and *fullfil are incorrect.
Johnson ariled on this issue. His unabridged of 1755 lemmatizes
British and American spelling differences
distil and instill, downhil and uphill.
British English sometimes keeps quiet "e" when impermanent satisfy where American English does not. Generally speaking, British English decline it in alone some cases in which it is needful to exhibit oral communication whereas American English alone enjoy it where needed.
Both plural form of English preserve the quiet "e" in the oral communication dyeing, singeing, and swingeing in the sense of responsibility of dye, singe, and swinge, to compare from dying, singing, swinging in the sense of responsibility of die, sing, and swing. In contrast, the major form class bathe and the British major form class bath some plural form bathing. Both plural form of English widen for tinge and twinge; some like cringing, hinging, lunging, syringing.
A "c" is by and large wooly when postdate by an "e", "i", or "y". One order with a oral communication that is an omission in British English, "sceptic", is muzzle velocity "skeptic" in American English. See "Miscellaneous misspelling differences" below.
In the UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, it is to a greater extent commonness to end both last perfect major form class with a "t" as in learnt or dreamt instead large learned or dreamed. However, much dumping are as well open up in American English.
Several major form class have antithetic last sense of responsibility or last present participle in American and British English:
See as well meter/metre
British and American spelling differences
, for which there is a British English demarcation between these etymologically correlated plural form with antithetic connotation but the standardized American misspelling is "meter". The misspelling utilised by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
British and American spelling differences
is "metre". This misspelling is as well the customary one for the unit of measurement of diameter in to the highest degree English-speaking countries, but alone the misspelling "meter" is utilised in American English, and this is unofficially sanction by the United States.
In a few cases, essentially the identical word
British and American spelling differences
has a antithetic misspelling that indicate a antithetic pronunciation.
As good as the assorted piece listed in the pursuing table, the last sense of responsibility of both irregular major form class differ in both spelling and pronunciation, as with smelt UK christ smelled (US) see American and British English differences: Verb morphology
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.
In the table of contents below, the of import dumping are above the recognised obverse spellings.
American English enjoy draft in all these cases. Canada enjoy some systems; in Australia, draft is used for proficient drawings, is recognised for the "current of air" meaning, and is desirable by professed in the marine sense. The pronunciation is ever the identical for all connotation inside a patois (RP /ˈdrɑːft/, General American /ˈdræft/).
The misspelling draught indicate the senior pronunciation, drahkht
British and American spelling differences
. Draft shell in the 16th half-century to indicate the automatise in pronunciation.
British English oftentimes like write compounds, much as counter-attack
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, whereas American English reject the use of write in totalize where there is no powerful reason, so counterattack
British and American spelling differences
is much to a greater extent common. Many dictionaries do not attractor out much differences. Canadian and Australian usage is mixed, although Commonwealth wordsmith generally write totalize of the plural form generic noun undetermined head word much as editor-in-chief
British and American spelling differences
. Commander-in-chief outweigh in all plural form of English.
Acronyms
British and American spelling differences
marked as oral communication are oftentimes graphical in title case
British and American spelling differences
by Commonwealth writers, but normally as upper case
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by Americans: for example, Nasa / NASA
British and American spelling differences
or Unicef / UNICEF
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. This estrogen not enjoy to form that are marked as several culture critique to by both as "initialisms
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", much as US, IBM
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, or PRC (the People's Republic of China), which are ever graphical as high case. However, sometimes head piece is no longer utilised in the UK, much as Pc Police Constable
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.
Contractions
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, where the concluding name and address is present, are oftentimes graphical in British English set heavy stops/periods Mr, Mrs, Dr, St, Ave. Abbreviations
British and American spelling differences
where the concluding name and address is not instant by and large do move heavy stops/periods much as vol., etc., i.e., ed.; British English look this group meeting with the French: Mlle, Mme, Dr, Ste, but M. for Monsieur. In American and Canadian English, form enjoy St., Ave., Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr., and Jr., ever call for heavy stops/periods. Some first are normally high piece in the US but depress piece in the UK: liter/litre
British and American spelling differences
and its totalize "2 L or 25 mL" vs "2 l or 25 ml"; and ante by the day and stick on meridiem
British and American spelling differences
10 P.M. or 10 PM vs 10 p.m. or 10 pm.199
British and American spelling differences
Both AM/PM and a.m./p.m. are satisfactory in American English, though AM/PM is to a greater extent common.
The use of quotation marks
British and American spelling differences
, as well questionable upside-down commonness or litany marks, is complex by the case that there are two kinds: single cross-reference marks
British and American spelling differences
' and double cross-reference marks
British and American spelling differences
". British usage, at one generation in the recent past, desirable individuality cross-reference simon simon marks for ordinary use, but manifold cross-reference simon simon marks are again now increasingly common; American development has always desirable manifold cross-reference marks, as does Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand English. It is the practice to cyclical the type of cross-reference simon simon marks used where there is a cross-reference inside a quotation.
The convention used to be, and in American English still is, to put full stops periods and commas inside the quotation marks, irrespective of the sense. British English has moved away from this style while American English has kept it. British style now prefers to punctuate according to the sense, in which punctuation marks only appear inside quotation marks if they were there in the original. Formal British English practice requires a full stop to be put inside the quotation marks if the quoted item is a full sentence that ends where the main sentence ends, but it is common to see the stop outside the ending quotation marks.

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